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Antiepileptic Therapy in Children: Effects On IgG Subclasses

Eman Kandil.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science; Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

An evaluation of serum IgG, IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses with regard to antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine (CBZ), valproic acid (VPA), and phenobarbital (PB) was performed in 20 epileptic patients. None of them had received antiepileptic drugs prior to the study. Serum IgG subclasses levels were measured before and after one and four months after treatment using IgG subclass ELISA. Reduce serum concentrations of IgG2 was demonstrated after treatment regardless the type of antiepileptic drug. This decrease was detected at one month after drug therapy and was maintained after four months of treatment. These differences were statistically significant as compared to healthy controls for PB(P < 0.01)  after one and 4 months of treatment and for CBZ (P < 0.001) after 4 months of treatment. Patients treated with VPA showed an increase in IgG1 level, whereas a fall in IgG3 level was found in the VPA and CBZ groups. Serum IgM concentration was significantly decreased in groups of patients treated with CBZ of PB after one and four months of drug treatment (P < 0.02 and P < 0.03, respectively), while IgE concentration was significantly reduced after 4 months of treatment in the same groups (P < 0.05). These data suggest that antiepileptic drugs have influence not only in serum IgM and IgE but also in serum IgG subclasses in children.